WASHINGTON – House Democrats have escalated their impeachment inquiry into President Donald Trump's pressuring of the Ukrainian government to open an investigation into former Vice President Joe Biden and his son Hunter Biden, subpoenaing White House and administration officials over documents and testimony related to Trump's contacts with Ukraine.
The Trump administration has said it would not cooperate with the impeachment inquiry, setting up a clash between the legislative and executive branches.
If the White House does not comply with a subpoena, the House could file a civil lawsuit, or hold people in contempt of Congres. It is unclear what ability Congress has to enforce its subpoenas, though.
Here are all of the current and former White House officials who have been subpoenaed or asked to provide information to congressional investigators since House Democrats announced their formal impeachment inquiry on Sept. 24.
European Union Ambassador Gordon Sondland (Oct. 8)
Gordon Sondland, the ambassador to the European Union, was scheduled to meet with congressional investigators on Oct. 7 but was directed by the White House not to hold the meeting.
Sondland had been at the center of text messages released as part of Ukrainian envoy Kurt Volker's testimony to Congress last week, and lawmakers on both parties had been looking forward to hearing from Sondland before his testimony was canceled.
"I would love to send Ambassador Sondland, a really good man and great American, to testify, but unfortunately he would be testifying before a totally compromised kangaroo court, where Republican’s rights have been taken away, and true facts are not allowed out for the public," Trump tweeted Tuesday morning.
In response, House Democrats issued a subpoena in an attempt to compel Sondland's testimony and to force the release of text messages or emails on one of his personal devices.
Defense Secretary Mark Esper/The Pentagon (Oct. 7)
House Democrats also sought information from Defense Secretary Mark Esper on any relevant information on the withholding of military aid to Ukraine
They issued a subpoena to Esper and the Department of Defense on Oct. 7.
Acting Office of Management and Budget Director Russell Vought (Oct. 7)
In response to media reports that Trump had ordered then-acting OMB Director Mick Mulvaney to halt military aid to Ukraine, House Democrats issued a subpoena on Oct. 7.
Speaking to reporters outside the White House on Wednesday Vought said he and his office would not be cooperating in the impeachment inquiry.
Acting White House Chief of Staff Mick Mulvaney/The White House (Oct. 4)
House Democrats sent a letter on Oct. 4 to acting White House Chief of Staff Mick Mulvaney carrying subpoenas related to documents relating to the impeachment inquiry. The White House was given a deadline of Oct. 18 to comply.
The subpoena came after the White House ignored several other requests for documents.
Vice President Mike Pence (Oct. 4)
House Democrats issued a request for documents to Vice President Mike Pence relating to the inquiry on Oct. 4, but it appears that Pence's office will not comply with the request.
"Given the scope, it does not appear to be a serious request but just another attempt by the Do Nothing Democrats to call attention to their partisan impeachment," spokeswoman Katie Waldman said in a statement.
Pence's office was given an Oct. 15 deadline to produce the documents. A failure to comply with the request could constitute "evidence of obstruction," Democrats said.
Rudy Giuliani (Sept. 30)
Democrats subpoenaed Trump's personal attorney Rudy Giuliani on Sept. 30 for documents related to his contacts and dealings with Ukrainian officials. Giuliani had played a central role in the controversy around the pressuring of the Ukrainian government to open investigations.
He told The Washington Post on Oct. 8 he would not comply with the subpoena.
"Let them hold me in contempt. We’ll go to court. We’ll challenge the contempt," he told The Washington Post.
Secretary of State Mike Pompeo (Sept. 27)
Democrats subpoenaed Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on Sept. 27 for documents related to Ukraine.
Pompeo failed to comply with the Oct. 4 deadline to produce documents.
"Sadly there have been congressional inquiries that have harassed and abused State Department employees," Pompeo told reporters in Greece during a news conference with that country's foreign minister.
"We'll obviously do all the things that we are required to do by law," he said, without specifying how long it might take to comply.
Contributing: Maureen Groppe, Bart Jansen, Deirdre Shesgreen, Christal Hayes